The customdesigned microprocessor delivers an instant readout on one of five different scales. It is used in the fast control of liquids and the infield analysis. Sep 20, 2016 abbe refractometer the use and how it works duration. Refractometry is generally speaking the measurement of refractive index and its interpretation under different starting points refractometric measurements can be used for example for purity investigations, sample recognition, dilution control or composition. Its most common use is the determination of the concentrations of solutions.
Abbe refractometer definition is a refractometer in which the critical angle for total reflection at the interface of a film of a liquid between two similar glass prisms is utilized in determining the index of refraction. Atago manufacturer 1211 nar1t liquid mpn upc code atago brand refractometers product refractometer type product line abbe class liquid grade astm number astm application capacity refractive index nd. In the abbe refractometer the liquid sample is sandwiched into a thin layer between an illuminating prism and a refracting prism figure 2. Select from a wide array of units of measure and scale combinations.
Our best selling standard abbe refractometer measures the refractive indices n d and mean dispersion n fn c of glass, as well as other transparent and translucent liquids and solids. Refractometer history of refractometer ernst abbe designed his refractometer in 1869, but it didnt became commercially available from carl zeiss before 1881. The nar1t solid abbe refractometer was designed for solid sample measurement this model can also measure liquid samples. A refractometer is a laboratory or field device for the measurement of an index of refraction refractometry. Brix is a measure of sugar concentration and is used extensively in the agriculture and food and beverage industries. The palm abbe digital refractometer is fast, convenient, and easytouse.
Abbe refractometers are named after ernst abbe, who invented the first refractometer in the 19th century. Refractometers are typically used to determine the refractive index of a liquid sample. Place your sample on the main prism, which is rimmed with stainless steel to prevent corrosion, look through the eyepiece and line up the shadowline in the crosshairs. The abbe instrument is the most convenient and widely used refractometer, fig1 shows a schematic diagram of its optical system. Place your sample on the main prism, which is rimmed with stainless steel to prevent.
This model has the refractive index scale and brix scale, and operates with d line 589nm light source. Fisherbrand abbe benchtop refractometer abbe refractometers. Refractometer abbe 2waj lcd digital thermometer builtin. Use a pipet to apply your liquid sample to the prism, being careful not to let the glass pipet tip touch the prism since this may scratch the soft prism glass. To obtain the best possible accuracy, it is absolutely necessary to maintain the instrument. Two similar prisms x, y are placed on a table a, the prism x being hinged at h so that it could be swung away from y, a drop of the liquid is placed on the surface a, which is matt, and the prisms are placed together so that the liquid is squeezed into a thin film between. When light enters a dry prism, the field of view in an analog refractometer remains. Uncompromising precision at an economical cost meets astm d 141689, section 3846 requirements. The abbe refractometer is easily implemented in a compact design. Misco is the source for all your refractometer parts and accessories. Abbe refractometer the use and how it works duration.
Parts are available for the misco traditional analog refractometer, the palm abbe digital handheld refractometer, inlineprocess refractometers and sensors, as well as benchtoplaboratory refractometers. Thanks to consistent customer focus paired with smart ideas and. Digital abbe refractometers uses and applications of the abbe refractometers atago s abbe refractometers are widely used in a variety of fields. Ar 3 abbe refractometer same as ar 4, but without ledillumination for prism and scale. Abbe 60 refractometers abbe 60 direct reading refractometer more stringent requirements of quality control and, in some cases, legislation, mean that greater accuracy is being demanded of refractometers. It measures how the light is bent as it moves through a specific substance. Its original design was so successful that even as of today it is over 150 years old, it is still used and copied in new devices. Anton paars abbemat refractometer series ranges from the straightforward abbemat 3x00 series for routine analysis to the sturdy heavy duty line for measurements in harsh environments. Abbe refractometer definition of abbe refractometer by.
Abbe 60 refractometers can be used to measure the refractive index of liquid or solid samples for a wide range of applications. Refractometer for laboratory and industry refractometry is generally speaking the measurement of refractive index and its interpretation under different starting points. Abbe s refractometer is used to measure the refractive index of the given organic liquid. These abbe refractometers provide highly accurate refractive index and brix measurements of liquids and solids. Working principle behind the abbe refractometer gulpmatrix. Easy to use operation consists of placing a sample on the prism.
The device was slowly changing while the general principle was and is up to today still the. Atagos abbe refractometers are highly reliable instruments which measure refractive index and brix scales. Laboratory refractometer for precisely measuring liquids, solids, semiliquids and powders. The mark iii refractometer is a high precision optical instrument. The refractometer is often stored with a piece of tissue in the prism assembly to keep the prism glass from being scratched. Model part number calibration test piece calibration tables 60 95 1003 glass, 1044 not supplied 60 dr 1099 glass, 1044 60 ed 1004 silica, 1046 10295 60 lr 1006 silica, 1046 10297. Abbe refractometers are not shown in hilgers 1914 general catalogue 35 general catalogue of the manufactures of adam hilger, ltd. The device is relatively inexpensive, accurate, requires little maintenance or calibration, uses. Zebra refractometer manual correcting for temperature if, during concentration measurement, the temperature is above or below 10f to that of the temperature during calibration, it is recommended to recalibrate the unit at the testing temperature. Ideal for measuring the refractive index of liquids, solids and sugar. Prism with large windows, equipped with movable shrouds to keep out light. Optical refraction index and brix scale reading system, with an excellent boundary line brightness and contrast. Atago can supply abbe refractometer with measurement range of nd1.
A laboratory refractometer is an instrument used to measure the refractive index of a substance. Clean the prism face with acetone and carefully blot it dry with a kimwipe. Abbes refractometer, temperature controller, light source and samples. Fg measured with refractometer at room temperature was 1. Operating manual abbe refractometer kern ort 1rs analogue. Digital abbe refractometer, model dra1, atago 10dra1. To study the variation of refractive index with a temperature of the liquid sample. An abbe refractometer is a benchtop device for the highprecision measurement of an index of refraction. Abbe designed a refractometer for measuring the refractive index of liquids whose principle is illustrated as follows. The abbe mark iii has many advanced upgrades, including menudriven operation. Brix refractometer brix and refractive index scales sugar.
The refracting prism is made of a glass with a high refractive index e. In order to calculate abv given the challenge of using a refractometer, is the following approach correct. Despite the emergence of modernday digital models, these original refractometers remain irreplaceable due to their unique ability to measure solid samples, such as film, glass, and other transparent materials. This claim is the driving force for the development of our microscope and refractometer ranges. Just started using a refractometer, and trying to calculate abv using a correction calculator. The abbe 5 is an affordable refractometer ideally suited for use where a wide refractive index measurement range is required such as in small contract laboratories or applications where sample throughput is relatively low. The instrument is also ideal for practical demonstrations and experiments in. The abbe 60 direct reading models, available in two measuring ranges, have been designed to meet these requirements. This unit cannot be used to measure solid samples or calculate dispersion values. Check that the cooling water is flowing and record the water temperature on the precision thermometer to 0. It is based on the principle of total reflection which occurs at the boundary between the prism and the sample. Brix refractometer brix and refractive index scales.
Refractometric measurements can be used for example for purity investigations, sample recognition, dilution control or composition. Since the refractive index of a material varies with its composition, it is useful in measuring the concentration of liquids i. The index of refraction is calculated from snells law while for mixtures, the index of refraction can be calculated from the composition of the material using several mixing rules such as the gladstonedale relation and lorentzlorenz equation. A refractometer is a scientific machine that measures the amount that light is bent or refracted when it moves from the air into a sample.
Consult bellingham stanley, a xylem brands principles of refractometry brochure on directindustry. Quick manual atago usa online store for refractometer. A brief essay, the chemical refractometer, describes the. Wya2s characteristics characteristics z measurement of refractive index nd of transparent or translucent liquid and solid substances. Pa201 palm abbe digital refractometer 0 to 56 brix. That characteristic is represented by a value on a scale in units known as. The abbe2waj refractometer is a tabletop instrument to quickly and accurately determine the refractive index nd between 1,300 and 1,700 as well as the sugar content in liquids, dispersions, emulsions and other translucent substances. Applications ideal for measuring the refractive index of liquids, solids and sugar concentrations brix, industry. Description uk version 230v euro version 230v us version 110v. To find refractive index of the given liquid samples. Refractometer there are two types of handheld refractometers.
The abbe refractometer measures refractive indexes nd, solid contents in % and mean dispersion values nfnc of tranparent and translucent liquids or solids. Measuring the refractive index of a liquid 1 turn on the light. The abbe refractometer provides a quick and easy means for determining refractive index and dispersion of liquids and solids. Dualscale digital refractometer with scales for measuring both brix to 85 and refractive index to 1. Measuring abv with a refractometer community beeradvocate. Its original design was so successful that even as of today it is over. The refractometers listed above have the same scale as the nar2t. Multiwavelength abbe refractometers refractive index or abbe number vd or ve can be measured these refractometers digitallly display the measurement resu the boundary line at the intersection point of the cross hairs these units can be connected to the digital printer. For the next almost 40 years carl zeiss was the only producer of abbe refractometers. Circulator nozzles allow the instrument to be attached to a circulating bath to allow for accurate temperature control of primary and secondary prisms. Ar abbe refractometers ar2008 digital abbe refractometer.
For a recent batch, sg measured with refractometer at room temperature was 1. Reichert abbe mark iii refractometer the tradition of excellence continues. The abbe refractometer was developed in 1869 by ernst abbe and is used to determine the refractive index otherwise known as the index of refraction. The nar1tliquid is an abbe refractometer designed for customers who will only be measuring liquid samples at temperatures below 50c. This abbe refractometer serves for the determination of the refractive index and. The angle are measured relative to the normal of the. Uses and applications for measuring the refractive index nd of liquid samples between 5 to 50. Factors affecting ri measurement temperature of the liquid inverse relation for organic liquids ri decreases by approximately 0. The new palm abbe is a fourthgeneration digital handheld refractometer that puts laboratory precision in the palm of your hand. By very simple operation that needs only to set the boundary line of refraction at the cross hairs, this refractometer directly indicates a measured value in refractive index or brix %, selective in digits together with temperature on the display. Pycnometers made easythe best way to measure density. There are different types of refractometers, such as brix scale, salt refractometer, and abbe refractometer. To describe the procedure for operation and calibration of refractometer. The abbe refractometer ar12 is equipped with hose connections at the prism unit for the.
Opt10 and opt32 models are temperature stabilized within a 18f range. The refractive index is the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence of a ray of light in vacuum to the sine of the angle of refraction in the medium, which is equal to the ratio of the wave velocity of light in vacuum to the wave velocity in the medium. System maintenantce from noble company noble company. The reichert abbe mark iii is the new standardbearer of abbestyle manual refractometers. Atago abbe benchtop refractometers novatech international. They work on the principle that light entering a prism has a unique characteristic. These first instruments had builtin thermometers and. Abbe refractometers multiwavelength abbe refractometers.
Compared with other types of refractometers, the abbe refractometers are capable of measuring liquid and solid samples such as plate glasses, plastic sheets, and other solid films. Sep 24, 2011 how to use a refractometer abbe duration. Refractometer for field analysis and for laboratory use. Ernst abbe 18401905, working for carl zeiss ag in jena, germany in the late 19th century, was the first to develop a laboratory refractometer. The abbe 2waj refractometer is a tabletop instrument to quickly and accurately determine the refractive index nd between 1,300 and 1,700 as well as the sugar content in liquids, dispersions, emulsions and other translucent substances. Alternatively, the performance line is ideal for quality control on a large number of samples. Catalog download adobe pdf for information on features, specifications and common applications of atago instruments, select the model below and click. Refractive index is a fundamental physical property of a solution and is related to the speed light travels through it. The performance plus line is designed for research and. Ar 5152 abbe refractometer equipment the same as the ar 4, but with flowthrough cell which can be temperaturecontrolled by a circulating thermostat bath. Refractometer principle pdf you should be familiar with the general principle of refraction. Adjust the micrometer screw to focus the boundary between the bright and dark regions. Atago s abbe refractometers are highly reliable instruments which measure refractive index and brix scales.
Ar 6 abbe refractometer same as ar 4, but with a digital thermometer. Using a particular monochromatic light source, the apparatus is calibrated with water as the liquid. Abbe refractometer was the first refractometer to be offered commercially see refractometer history for more details. Features apparatus equipped with an optical system made of a. Two similar prisms x, y are placed on a table a, the prism x being hinged at h so that it could be swung away from y, a drop of the liquid is placed on the surface a, which is matt, and the prisms are placed together so that the liquid is squeezed into a thin film between them. The refractometer is a measuring instrument for determining the refractive index of translucent liquids, dispersions and emulsions. Abbe refractometer model rmt laboratory refractometer for precisely measuring liquids, solids, semiliquids and powders. The precision and accuracy of a refractive index measurement is largely dependent upon operator skill, cleaning practices.468 1055 753 16 408 118 153 149 367 469 1179 935 328 1350 827 952 1378 341 495 448 1442 848 584 1158 1534 233 620 22 428 1213 393 298 1064 627 669 208 1468 872 1331